Inoculation by copulation is one of the most common methods for improving varieties, yield of shrubs and trees. The method is simple and does not require any expensive tools, every gardener will find everything he needs in his home or on the plot. About its features, secrets and will be discussed in the article.
What is copulation?
Copulation - this is a combination of a cutting and a graft in the place of their identical, oblique cuts. The result of the work should look like a tied whole twig. The advantages of the method include its simplicity. Even an inexperienced gardener is able to make a graft copulation and make a wild tree or shrub from any wilderness that will regularly produce a large crop. In this case, an important advantage is the high percentage of survival rate of vaccinations, unlike other methods.
In total there are two types of copulation - simple and improved. About their specifics and features will be described below.
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Copulation is a very effective method, but it requires certain conditions and tools. Not in each case can be copulated. For its implementation it is necessary to find the cutting and stock with the same diameter. Also required:
- wet cloth;
- a sharp knife, because if the knife is blunt, an even cut will not come out and the graft will not take root;
- electrical tape or any other similar material, sometimes used simple rope or plastic wrap food.
- garden pitch or plasticine;
- plastic bag.
How is regular copulation performed?
The structure of the cutting and the scheme of the cut for copulation
A simple grafting of a copulation involves the connection of the cutting and stock in the place of their cuts. The method is carried out in early spring - when it is already possible to work outside, but the buds have not yet dissolved. In order for the vaccination to be successful, you need to take care and make sure that the graft has already begun to “wake up” after the winter, and the cutting is still in the resting stage.
First of all, prepare a young stalk (diameter not more than 1.6 cm). It makes an even, oblique cut without chipping 1-1.5 cm below the kidney at an angle of 15-25 °. The eyes on it should be from 3 to 5 pieces - this is very important, because the more of them, the harder it will be for the cutting to take root. Above the upper kidney of the scion make a blunt cut at an angle of 45 °. Another oblique cut of 15-25 ° is carried out on the stock. The length of this cut should be 3-4 times the diameter of the branch of the stock.
Now comes the crucial moment. Graft and rootstock must be connected so as to get a flat, solid twig. Ideally, the cambium cutting and cambium stock should be joined. In this case, the accretion will occur much faster. Indeed, it is the cambium that plays the key role in grafting. This layer overgrows the "wounds" of the plant or splits the cut point with another cut, as in this case.
Stages of copulation
Tightly pressing the graft to the rootstock must be tight, overlap with an electrical tape, a strip of plastic film, a rope or other similar material. During rewinding it is necessary to make sure that the place where the branches join is not shifted. Some gardeners also recommend keeping the buds open while rewinding, and not covering them with tape. But in fact it is not necessary.
After dressing the top of the cutting, which was cut, slapped garden pitch. Top of the stalk can be covered with a plastic bag to reduce evaporation. It is important to make sure that under the action of moisture the garden pod does not slip from the branch, otherwise it will lead to drying of the upper buds.
If everything is done correctly - after 2 weeks you can see how the buds on the handle started growing.
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Simple copulation is very effective, and it is easy to perform, but it has one major drawback - during the ligation, the junction of the cambium is often shifted. To keep the stalk and stock in one position is very difficult. To do this, you need either two people (one holds, the other knits), or very long workouts. That is why the method of improved copulation was invented.
Conducting improved copulation is almost the same, except for one thing. Oblique cuts on the handle and stock are zigzagged or otherwise called "tongues." Due to the presence of "tongue" twigs securely fastened and grow together faster. Hence the name - improved copulation.
What experts advise?
- Seasoned gardeners recommend cuttings for copulation is not easy to cook in the fall, but leave in the snow for the whole winter. Thanks to this method of harvesting the cuttings before copulation will be at rest.
- The cut on the handle and stock should be done in one sharp movement. To “get a hand” it is recommended to practice a little on simple branches, which can be found on the street, before grafting. This will allow to understand the principle and improve skills.
- During vaccination by copulation, it is important not to touch the place of the tree, shrubs and cuttings with your hands or any objects. This can lead to infection of the plant and negatively affect it.
- The stone rocks are planted first, and then seed. So, cherries and cherries need to be copied until the beginning of April, and an apple and pear tree - from April to mid-June.
- Before making cuts for grafting, the graft and the stock is wiped with a damp cloth to clear the area of dirt that may infect the plant.
- Improved copulation gives a more efficient and fast result, but it should be done only if it is already possible without problems to make a cut for simple copulation. This method is convenient in terms of ligation, and healing is fast. But, it is necessary to do the "tongues" correctly, otherwise there will be little confusion.