Pear Duchess is popular not only in amateur gardening, it is often grown on an industrial scale for further sale or processing. There are several varieties of this culture, which differ not only in the appearance of the trees, but also in the fruits. The article describes the varieties of varieties, their characteristics and methods of growing Duchess pears.
Description of pear varieties Duchess pear
Literally Dyushes translated as "Duchess". Pear Duchess was bred in England by the breeder Willer. The first mention of this type belongs to the year 1796. It spread quickly around the world due to its qualities, and then many varieties appeared.
The flesh is always tender, juicy, regardless of the variety
Dyushes differs in universal application and excellent tastes of fruits. The flesh is always tender, juicy, regardless of the variety of Dushes, with a bright, sweet aftertaste. Tasters rate it at 4.8 points on a 5-point scale.
Juice from this type of pear has hypoallergenic qualities. This is one of the reasons why Dushes is used in traditional medicine. From it make a useful jam, jam, as well as infusions on honey. This is a low-calorie product, so it can be used in the diet menu.
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There are several varieties of pear Duchess. Each species has unique qualities that distinguish it from others.
- Dushes Moscow wild - tall variety, life expectancy up to 80 years. Leathery leaves, flowers pale pink, up to 3.5 cm in diameter. It blooms in May, attracting a lot of bees. The harvest ripens to the beginning of autumn. Pears are small 150-400 g. The yield per tree is up to 250 kg. But the tree fructifies abundantly only once in 3 years. It is grown in temperate regions.
- Duchess Angouleme grown only in warm climates. This variety is often found in the Crimea, in the Caucasus. Maturation has been observed since August. Productivity of 70-150 kg from an adult tree. The fruits are large, sometimes reaching a weight of 1 kg, obtusely shaped. Fruits can be stored on trees for more than a month, so you can not rush to collect. Appreciated for a good aroma, presentation.
- Duchess Moscow Garden - tall variety. Flowers white, medium size. Pears are large, can grow up to 800 g. The rind is yellow with a red hue. Sugar content reaches 16%. The ripened crop can be stored for a long time on the branches without falling off. Often this pear is used for drying and in technological production.
Varieties of pears Duchess pearsImportant! For pollination of pears of Duchess, such varieties as "Bere Ardanpon", "Klapp's Lover", "Forest Beauty" are suitable.
- Duchess Winter - Belgian variety. The tree is vigorous with a crown in the shape of a pyramid, prefers well-fertilized land. The leaves are light green, elliptical. Fruits are barrel-shaped, up to 800 g. The rind is dense, smooth, with a floral smell. Color amber with blush. The flesh is white, juicy, melts in the mouth. Longevity is long, pear Duchess pear Winter is stored on the branches. The taste is sweet with a slight sourness. Use is universal.
- Duchess Summer - Old English pear variety. The fruits ripen in late summer. They are usually gathered in groups of 2-3 pieces. The mass of fruits is 80-180 g, the form is pear-shaped, wide. The color of the peel after full maturity is lemon yellow with a blurred blush. The skin is thin, but dense. The pulp is granular, juicy, cream color. The taste is wine-sweet, spicy, gives nutmeg. The pear is self-infertile. It can be grown in areas with warm and temperate climates.
The main advantages of pear Duchess pear
Of course, different varieties of Dushesha have certain characteristics, which is clear from the description above. But they also have common qualities due to which the variety is mainly referred to the industrial type.
Spring pear care
- Pear Duchess easily transported even over long distances. On the road, the fruits do not spoil, do not rot. To the final place we arrive without damage, practically in its original form.
- Long shelf life. Fruits can be stored in special storages, cellars. But often they are simply left on the branches. In this form, even after full maturation, they can be stored for more than a month! Then they are collected, sent for recycling or stored for storage in cold rooms or similar rooms.
- The taste is sweet, pleasant, although the different varieties are slightly different. In particular, tasters distinguish pear Duchess Summer. There is a lot of sugar in the fruit, but despite this, in all varieties there is a light, refreshing acidity, for which Duchess pears are loved.
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You can plant a pear Duchess in spring, if you are not sure that it will withstand frosts or in autumn. In the latter case, the day is selected, 20 days before the earth freezes and then the pear is planted.
A pit for planting is dug up in the size of a meter per meter and a depth of up to 60 cm. The land for planting is mixed in advance with 3 humus buckets. That is the amount taken per planting pit, the rest - a simple, garden soil. You can also add 2-3 liter jars of wood ash. Drainage is poured at the bottom of the pit, then a hill of fertile land and a seedling is placed on top. Roots straighten in all directions and covered with earth.
Pear Blossom PhotoImportant! Next to a pear, it is necessary to install a support peg in the landing hole, otherwise a young tree may fall from a strong wind or just twist.
After planting, Duchess pear is watered, and from above you can mulch with peat. It is also worth noting that, since these pears themselves produce little harvest, you must plant at least one other pear of another variety next to the tree. An alternative may be a simple vaccination. In the planted tree, another 2-5 varieties are grafted, and the yield is increased several times!
How to care for pear
Caring for Duchesse is not much different from caring for other cultivated trees, but it has its own characteristics, so it is worth studying it in detail.
- Pear Duchess loves moisture. A small tree is watered often because the root system is underdeveloped. But an adult tree can already reach the roots to the deeper layers, where there is moisture, so watering is less common for it. Especially a lot of water is needed when the fruit grows.
- In the spring, all dry and damaged branches are cut. In 1 year, the side branches are shortened by ¼, as well as the central trunk. For 2 years, the center is cut by 25 cm, and the side branches are 5-8 cm. Already at an adult tree, a thinning pruning is needed, except for the sanitary one, so that it is convenient to harvest.
- Mulching for pear recommended. It protects the ground from overheating and freezing, and also prevents the growth of weeds. You can buy mulch (special) or just use peat, scrap, high quality humus.
Harvest Pear DuchessInteresting! In the dry summer you can sprinkle directly from the hose for the pear. Water is sprayed on the twigs, leaves of the tree. But it is important to carry out this procedure only at sunset or on an overcast day!
- Mandatory procedure for spring, if pear is grown - whitewashing. You can buy whitewash at any gardening shop, there are plenty of different types (with additives). This procedure protects the tree not only from pests, but also from sunburn!
- To pears regularly fruited, it is necessary to make fertilizer on time. In early July, a solution of manure (1: 6) or bird's (1:12) is introduced into the furrows along the perimeter of the root zone. Enough 10 liters. In July, a mixture of 150 ml of water, 20 g of potassium humate and 1 kg of nitrophoska should be applied under the tree after watering. After fruiting, in August, 150 g of superphosphate and 60 g of potassium chloride are embedded in the soil near the root zone.
- Since pears often suffer from scab and other diseases, it is worthwhile to carry out preventive spraying 2 times a year with special fungicides. And in order to keep the pear harvest longer, it is worth 20 days before harvesting the fruit from the tree to spray the crop against the scab with a fungicide like Strobe or Tridex. This will protect the crop and increase its shelf life.
- In winter, the tree is usually mulched with a layer of 30 cm (you can take peat) and wrap the trunk with a warm cloth (breathable, natural).
Reviews of pear varieties Duchess
Positive qualities speak in favor of varieties of pear Duchess pears, but gardeners are confronted not only with the merits of the species, but also with disadvantages.
- Dmitry Tereshchenko: “I grow Pear Winter Duchess on my plot for over 15 years. The fruit taste is excellent, suitable for any type of processing. But the main drawback is yield. Due to the fact that Duchess pear cannot produce fruit normally without other pollinator varieties, I take no more than 40 kg of fruit off the tree, and sometimes less. Of course, the problem is solved, this year another variety will be planted to it, and yet this is not its best quality. "
- Svetlana Antonenko: "In our garden, Dyushes has been growing for a long time. I don’t know exactly what kind of subspecies, but the fruits are very sweet! There are no problems in cultivation, I haven’t been involved in tree production for several years, but it survived and even gave fruit. Now I take care of it more professionally, I try to do everything on time. In the last couple of years there was a lot of harvest, I made jam and jam for sale. The juice is not made as a shop, but it is not bad and, most importantly, natural, so I cook every year! "
- Mikhail Khlibko: "Duchess as for me is more suitable for industrial cultivation. Our tree gave little fruit yet another pear did not plant. But since there was not much space at the site, I had to dig Duchess pear. And yet, a neighbor advised me to plant the second Duchess Summer I will try in the spring, I hope, the result will please. "